Diabetes Mellitus is generally referred as diabetes, which is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Indications of high blood sugar comprise frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased appetite. Serious long-term problems include cardiovascular disease, stroke, Diabetic Nephropathy, foot ulcers, and Diabetes Retinopathy. Diabetes is because of either the pancreas not producing sufficient insulin, or the cells of the body not responding appropriately to the produced insulin. The foremost goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with negligible excursions to low or high levels. Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin, exercise and controlled diet. Type 2 diabetes control may be achieved with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 & type 2
Complications of Diabetes
Diabetic Disorders and Treatment
From supplements to steered meditation, your diabetes treatment could include traditional medications, alternative treatments, and natural remedies. Diabetes is a lifetime condition that affects the blood sugar and insulin levels in the body. Treatment comprises lifestyle strategies and sometimes medication, but some complementary therapies, such as herbs and supplements, may help. There is no cure for Diabetes by means of Herbs and supplements and those elements do not establish a standalone treatment, but some may combine with conventional treatment to offer relief from symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. There are basically seven herbs and supplements that may be of benefit to people with type 2 diabetes, which are Alovera, Cinnamon, Bitter Melon, Milk Thistle, Fenugreek, Gymnema, Ginger.
Medicinal Plants and Fruits
Medicinal Seeds and Herbs
Traditional Herbal Practices and Improvisations
Blood glucose (blood sugar) monitoring tells you your blood glucose level at any one time. The artificial pancreas overcomes the disadvantages of two individual diabetes technology that already exist: the insulin pump and the continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Comparatively, a large percentage of world population is affected by diabetes mellitus, out of which roughly 5-10% with type 1 diabetes while the remaining 90% with type 2. Insulin administration is crucial for type 1 patients while it is required at later stage by the patients of type 2. Existing insulin delivery systems are accessible as transdermal injections which may be considered as invasive. Numerous non-invasive methods for insulin administration are being found by pharmaceutical companies to cut down the pain, and hypoglycemic occurrences related with injections in order to improve patient compliance.
Insulin pumps and insulin infusion systems
Insulin secretion in vitro and exocytosis
Novel Insulin delivery techniques
Acupuncture for diabetic complications
Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical and conventional therapy
Glucose sensors (invasive and non-invasive)
Implantable pumps and sensors
Closed-loop system and algorithm
Informatics in the service of medicine; telemedicine, software and other technologies
New insulin delivery systems: Inhaled, transdermal, and implanted devices
Blood glucose monitoring: Glucose pumps and sensors
A gland is an organ / body part that manufactures and puts out hormones that do a explicit job in your body. The key role of endocrine glands is to secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Many glands together compose the endocrine system. The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland are present in your brain. The neck contains the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Between your lungs is the thymus, the adrenals are on top of your kidneys, and behind your stomach is the pancreas. Your Pelvic region holds your ovaries (if you're a woman) or testes (if you're a man).
Hormones are chemical constituents that affect the activity of specific part of the body (target site). Intrinsically, hormones serve as messengers, controlling and coordinating events throughout the body. If your endocrine system doesn’t remain healthy, you might have problems developing during puberty, getting pregnant, managing stress, bone weakness, weight Gain or diabetes.
Functions of Glands
Indications and Contraindications of Glands dysfunction
Endocrinology is the branch of medicine that deals with the endocrine system, its disorder, and its explicit secretions such as hormones. It is also focused on the incorporation of developmental events proliferation, development, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioural actions of metabolism and tissue function. It also deals with metabolism & metabolic activities behind sleep, digestive systems, breathing, defecation, temperament, stress, lactation, biomechanics of body, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones. The endocrine system comprises of several glands, all in various parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. Therefore, endocrine glands are regarded as ductless glands.
Challenges of Endocrinology
Advances in Endocrinology Metabolism
Bone Health and Osteoporosis
Multiple endocrine Neoplasia
Obesity and Metabolic Disorders
Reproductive endocrinology defines the hormones and regulator mechanisms that control sexual development, sexual function, and reproduction. Male sexual growth and hormonal function depend on a complex feedback circuit involving the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes controlled by the central nervous system. Female reproductive system is regulated by the hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovaries
Male Reproductive Endocrinology
Female Reproductive Endocrinology
Transgender: Medicine and Research
Clinical trials are a crucial part and major decision-making point of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials explore innovative ways to prevent, identify or treat disease. Scientists are involved in research to study more about diabetes and endocrinology including the following studies Lipid Disorders: Lipid disorders are a group of medical conditions that see excessive levels of fatty substances within the blood. An excess of bad cholesterol upsurges your risk of heart disease and stroke.
Paraganglioma:A paraganglioma is a very rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop and progress at many body sites (including the head, neck, thorax and abdomen). About 97% are benign and cured by surgical removal; the remaining 3% are malignant neoplasm because they are able to produce distant metastases. Metabolic disorders of bone: Metabolic disorders of bone, reduction of bone strength usually triggered by deviations of minerals concentration (such as Ca or phosphorus(P)), vitamin D, bone mass or bone structure. The utmost common metabolic bone disorder is osteoporosis.
The Glycemia Reduction Methods in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study is following more than 5,000 people who is affected by type 2 diabetes across the country to find out which combination of two diabetes medicines is best for blood glucose, also called blood sugar management; has the fewest side effects; and is the most supportive for total health in long-term diabetes treatment.
Diabetes Research in Clinical Practice
Clinical Trails and Case reports in Diabetes
Clinical Trails and Case reports in Endocrinology
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are materials / constituents in the environment (air, soil, or water supply), food sources, personal care products, and industrial products that hinders/affects the normal functional role of your body's endocrine system. EDCs are chemicals or mixtures of chemical substances that affects the way the body’s hormones work
Some EDCs performs like "hormone mimics" and trick our body into thinking that they are hormones by pretending, while other EDCs restrains natural hormones from doing their job. Other EDCs can upsurge or reducing the levels of hormones in our blood by disturbing how they are made, broken down, or stored in our body. Finally, other EDCs can make modification on how sensitive our bodies are to various hormones.
Bisphenol A (BPA)
Bisphenol S (BPS)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
Other suspected endocrine disruptors